By SAMUEL SARMIENTO, M.D.
The Apollo astronauts — the first men to land on the moon — took a giant leap for mankind. But the deep space radiation that dosed the men who left the Earth's orbit may have damaged their hearts, according to a new study published Thursday in the journal Science.
The number of deaths due to heart disease among the Apollo lunar astronauts is almost five times greater than that in non-flight astronauts, or astronauts who never flew missions in space, researchers from Florida State University found. Compared to astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), the heart risk among Apollo astronauts is four times higher. There were no differences between LEO and non-flight astronauts.
Apollo was a NASA program that made 11 total space flights between 1968 and 1972, six of them landed on the moon. Twelve men, including Neil Armstrong and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, walked on the lunar surface.
Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the moon near a leg of the Lunar Module during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. The astronauts' bootprints are clearly visible in the foreground. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) "Eagle" to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Columbia" in lunar orbit (Photo Credit: NASA). NASAApollo astronauts are different
Unlike astronauts in other space missions, Apollo lunar astronauts are the only humans to have traveled outside of the Earth's geomagnetic field and into deep-space. They went outside of the earth's protective "magnetosphere" — the region surrounding the planet where its own magnetic field dominates. The magnetosphere causes galactic cosmic rays and solar particles to detour around the Earth.
Exposure to this radiation in deep-space is what may account for the increased heart problems in the Apollo astronauts.
"We've probably underestimated the impact of deep-space radiation on not just cardiovascular disease but health in general", said lead author of the study, exercise physiologist Dr. Michael Delp of Florida State University.
RELATED: NASA's Scotty Kelly Grew 2 Inches After a Year in Space
Of the 24 Apollo astronauts who flew around the moon on nine missions, eight have died. Of the 7 included in the study, 43 percent died from cardiovascular disease. Other causes of death included cancer (29 percent) and accidents (14 percent). Edgar Mitchell, the 6th man to walk on the moon, died in February but wasn't included in the study.
Conditions encountered in space have been found to affect men and women differently. For instance, weightlessness can lead to a problem regulating blood pressure known as orthostatic hypotension, which is more common among female astronauts. In the new study, although there were some females among the flight and non-flight astronauts, everyone who died from heart disease was male.
According to Delp, more research is still needed to better understand these differences.
It's known that space exploration comes with many health risks, including brittle bones, balance issues, and heart problems.
But in previous research, the astronauts — who are in peak physical condition — were compared to the general population.
The Florida State research is the first comparison of the health of astronauts with other astronauts, based on the type of their mission. The study looked at the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and radiation on the blood vessels of mice.
The researchers found that, unlike weightlessness, the effect of radiation on blood vessels is sustained. These changes occur in the lining of the blood vessels and can initiate or accelerate coronary heart disease.
NASA released a statement responding to the study's findings: "It is not possible to determine whether cosmic ray radiation affected the Apollo astronauts. Limitations of the study include the small number of astronauts in the Apollo program and lifestyle factors that cannot be quantified -- such as family genetics and diet."
The new study could spark more research specifically looking at this before embarking on other deep-space mission to the moon or Mars in the near future.
Mildly alkaline water (pH 8-10) is marketed as healthy drinking water. It is produced from water ionizers via electrolysis. Alkaline water containing molecular hydrogen is produced at the negative electrode (cathode). There are many names given to this water including: alkaline water, ionized water, alkali ion water, cathodic water, electrolyzed reduced water, and many more.
Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) is the most common term in the scientific literature. It is called electrolyzed because the water underwent electrolysis and is called reduced because the water at the cathode was reduced to hydrogen gas and hydroxides, and this alkaline water has reductive characteristics due to the dissolved hydrogen gas.
ALKALINE IONIZED WATER CHARACTERISTICS
ERW for drinking purposes has a pH between 8-10 and a negative oxidation-reduction potential between -100 mV to -700 mV. It contains dissolved molecular hydrogen gas (responsible for the –ORP) and low dissolved molecular oxygen gas.
EMERGING HEALTH BENEFITS
Studies on ERW began in the 1930’s in Japan and in 1965, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare approved ERW as a medical substance with potential to improve gastrointestinal symptoms (Read the details about this here). Over the ensuing decades, anecdotal and scientific evidence accumulated substantiating many other benefits of ERW; such as, protecting DNA from radical damage, increasing glucose uptake, improving diabetes, preventing premature cell death, offering liver protection, preventing lipid oxidation, and others.
However, it was uncertain as to how ERW was producing these benefits. Some marketers, and unfortunately some scientists, started promoting ideas like microclustering, reduced surface tension, negatively charged water molecules, free electrons, active hydrogen, and others.
*See ERW Skeptics and Pseudoscience
MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IS KEY TO ERW’S HEALTH EFFECTS
However, all these ideas have failed to pass scientific scrutiny, leaving the beneficial empirical and scientific observations without a rational explanation. It is now well-recognized that the primary agent responsible for the benefits is attributed to the dissolved molecular hydrogen gas. One leading ERW researcher from Kyushu University tested all the properties of ERW and the only one that exerted a therapeutic effect was the molecular hydrogen. This same observation was made by one of our advisors Dr. Lee from Korea who was a pioneer in ionized water research in the 1990s and now the leading Korean hydrogen scientist, as well as the the President of the Korean water society. He made the following statement:
"About 17 years ago (1990’s) I began studying alkaline ionized water and published scientific articles on its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects, but did not really understand why the water worked. It was difficult to believe. Upon further investigation I have now confirmed that the benefits from the alkaline ionized water are attributed to the hydrogen gas produced during electrolysis. The more I research and learn about hydrogen the more dedicated and passionate I become in educating and helping others."
The first time a link was suggested between ERW and hydrogen (although this was atomic or [“active”] hydrogen) appears to be in 1995. However, molecular hydrogen was not established and well-recognized as therapeutic until 2007. Prior to this time, articles on ERW made no mention of molecular hydrogen—at least not as an active component. However, starting in about 2010, articles on ERW began focusing almost exclusively on molecular hydrogen. Many recent articles will include molecular hydrogen in the title of the article; for example, “…molecular hydrogen saturated alkaline electrolyzed water…”.
This is also clearly illustrated in a recently published article. The researchers used fresh ERW at pH 8.5 and 9.5 with a low H2 concentration in one group, and ERW with a pH of 8.5 and 9.5 with additional H2 gas (via bubbling) in another group. The results show that the ERW with a low H2 concentration did not offer any therapeutic effects. However, the ERW at pH 8.5 and 9.5, with the additional H2 gas, provided significant therapeutic protection.
Importantly there was not a statistically significant difference between the pH 8.5 and 9.5 with the same higher H2concentrations. This further shows that it is the dissolved molecular hydrogen that is responsible for the therapeutic effects of ERW and not the alkaline pH or any other enigmatic properties.
In fact it is so well recognized that molecular hydrogen is the key component of ERW, that some studies will remove the molecular hydrogen from the ERW and use it for the control group.
For example, this research group prepared three types of waters: filtered water FW, electrolyzed reduced water ER, and ER with the H2 dehydrogenated (removed) DR. They made fresh samples twice daily and delivered it by a metallic straw from a closed bottle.
It was observed in the study that the only type of water that provided the protective effects was the ER containing the dissolved hydrogen gas. Just a note, the ORP was only -148 mV, which one would expect it to be much more negative at that pH and H2 concentration. However having done this for so long, I realize that ORP is an invalid measurement. I have tested ERW and received similar results and then tested it again after cleaning the probe and got -800 mV (see this article on ORP). So the lower ORP should not be a concerning issue. The water ionizer they used was a top commercial water ionizer in Japan TRIM ION TI-9000 system (Nihon Trim), which is also certified as a medical device.
Another study confirmed that it is the hydrogen gas and not the pH or minerals, or other properties of the alkaline reduced water that is responsible for the therapeutic benefits. They used three waters: regular water (RW) pH ≈7, degassed alkaline reduced water (DW) pH ≈9.5, and hydrogen alkaline reduced water (HW) pH ≈9.5. Their results (see below) showed that only the water containing the hydrogen gas was effective at reducing various metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP2, MMP3), markers of oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine, 4-HNE, 8OHdG, MDA), vascular inflammation (ICAM, ETA, TNFα, IL-6), intimal hyperplasia and macrophage infiltration (ED1).
One more study that helps illustrate that it is the hydrogen gas that is responsible for the therapeutic effects of ionized water, is one by Ignacio and colleagues. These researchers used four types of water:
Four groups of hairless mice were exposed to UVB radiation and then each group was bathed in one of these different waters. The results show that only the ionized water with the higher hydrogen gas concentration increased the antioxidant activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced inflammatory cytokines.
Consumers of ERW already know that the water is most effective when ingested as fresh as possible. This is because the molecular hydrogen starts to leave the water (as seen by the loss of the –ORP). Researchers now administer the water as fresh as possible, as well as use other methods to increase the concentration of molecular hydrogen. 33
Another method researchers are now choosing to produce molecular hydrogen-rich water is simply bubbling molecular hydrogen gas into pure water. This also eliminates any potential variables and assures saturation is achieved.
NOT ALL MACHINES ARE CREATED EQUAL.
Lastly, one recent review article specifically states that studies/researchers have “explicitly proved that molecular hydrogen but not alkaline in the electrolyzed alkaline water exerts therapeutic effects”. This information is important to the ionized water industry and consumer because it increases the importance of knowing and having water with a decent hydrogen gas concentration. Not all machines are created equal, and perhaps differences in H2concentrations (not ORP or pH) is responsible for differences in the observed therapeutic effects.
MOLECULAR HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION IN ERW
Some types of electrolysis units are manufactured to produce water that is saturated (1.6 ppm) or even supersaturated (2-3 ppm) with molecular hydrogen by these are often not conventional alkaline water ionizers. Some may be a batch type machine that maintains a neutral pH, but saturates the water with molecular hydrogen or a flow through system that can also maintain neutral pH. Water ionizers produce alkaline water and depending on a number of factors (e.g. flow rate, conductivity, etc) can produce between 0.05 to over 2 ppm. However, many machines only produce about a 6% saturated level (0.1 ppm) at a pH of 9.5. By running the water very slowly, these machines may increase the molecular hydrogen concentration, but the resulting pH is above 11.0 making the water unpalatable.
The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a palatable pH (less than 9.5 or neutral), and what is required to maintain this concentration are an important parameters when considering one of these machines.
Although the evidence is overwhelming that molecular hydrogen is the key to ERW’s benefits, most water ionizer companies make no mention of molecular hydrogen as a selling point. Not only do they not know what their water’s molecular hydrogen concentration is, but also they do not even know that it is the molecular hydrogen that is responsible for the benefits. This is simply because of the fact the importance of H2 was not even known by the scientists until 2007, which is decades after water ionizers were developed. Importantly, the market is generally about 10 years behind the science. Since molecular hydrogen was established in 2007, ten years from that time, about 2017, will be the year that the market will really start to take off exponentially promulgating the benefits of molecular hydrogen.
HX300 Hydrogen Inhalation Machine$2,895.00 - $2,995.00
Using PEM technology for electrolysis, our inhalation machine makes 99% pure H2 Molecular Hydrogen with no waste water. Simply attach a cannula and you can breathe in pure H2! At suggested rate of 150 mL/Min you can breathe in nearly 100 times the H2 of one 500 mL bottle of H2 water! Metal case is standard: ABS Blue or Grey case optional.
Maximum Output: 300mL/Min
Recommended Output: 150mL/Min
Usage: 30-60 minutes/once or twice per day
H2 Purity: 99.99%
Power and Voltage: 110V, 50-60 Hz
Fluctuation Rate of Output Pressure: < 0.001 MPa
Water Consumption: 1 Gal. water produces @ 22 liters of H2, will go 3-5 days before adding more water.
Water Requirement: Distilled water only
Weight: 26 lbs.
Delivery: Approximately 10-14 days after receiving order
Warranty: 12 months
From Alka Viva
What if there was a single natural way to reduce pain and inflammation? To improve your energy, cognitive function, exercise performance and recovery? To neutralize harmful free radicals and support your body’s enzyme and antioxidant production? And to also hydrate your cells plus generally support your overall health and wellness?
Scientists have discovered that H2 – molecular hydrogen or diatomic hydrogen – has all of these properties and more. H2 has become a major area of scientific research.
The Healing Property In Healing Waters
Around the world there are well-known natural water sources or springs that offer healing or curative properties. Scientists have recently found H2 in samples analyzed from Nordenau (Germany), Tlacote (Mexico) and Hita Tenryosui, Japan. 1-3 The existence of H2 in these springs (and others) could be a result of water reacting with alkali-earth metals, or from molecular hydrogen gas-producing bacteria and algae. 4 Regardless, the available science regarding H2 and its benefits seems to explain their healing properties.
What Is Molecular Hydrogen?
Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element appearing first on the Periodic Table of Elements. Molecular hydrogen is also the smallest molecule consisting of just one electron and one proton. Because of its tiny size, it is able to permeate even sub-cellular structures such as the mitochondria making it extremely bioavailable. It even crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is colorless, odorless, non-metallic, non-toxic and tasteless.
Molecular Hydrogen Research
The body of science regarding health benefits of H2 has advanced rapidly in recent years thanks to the studies done by research scientists around the globe. Over 600 peer-reviewed articles have been published on the impact of H2 on humans, animals, and individual cells. 5 It shows that H2 regulates over 200 biomolecules and appears to provide benefit in 166 health conditions and disease models, affecting virtually every organ in the human body. H2 operates on human metabolism in three primary areas:
• H2 rapidly and easily converts toxic free (hydroxyl OH-) radicals to water (H2 + 2 OH – > 2 H2O);
• H2 maintains antioxidant homeostasis. In other words, the body’s own antioxidants are leveraged and maintained; and
• H2 supports cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This impacts inflammation, obesity, and aging mechanisms.
Molecular Hydrogen Is Safe And Natural
H2 is not foreign to the body like a pharmaceutical drug. Your body produces small amounts of H2 gas from the bacteria in your digestive tract as it digests vegetable fibers, which diffuse into the bloodstream. Research shows that delivering H2 in higher concentrations than your body can produce is much more effective. In fact, drinking water infused with H2 was used in most of the studies and is the most effective way to deliver its powerful benefits.
H2 science is moving quickly beyond theory to practical applications. H2 ionizers and generators allow medical professionals and consumers to leverage the health benefits of H2.
“The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.”
Medical Gas Research 2015; 5:12
Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen
“It is not an overestimate to say that hydrogen’s impact on therapeutic and preventative medicine could be enormous in the future.”
Free Radical Research 2010
Why H2 Is A Superlative Antioxidant
Chronic oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major causes of aging and modern chronic diseases. Everyone knows that there are many antioxidants available. However, they have shown only limited success in therapeutic trials.
H2 has some distinct advantages, causing researchers to propose it as a NOVEL antioxidant with superior therapeutic and preventive applications.
• H2 is the smallest molecule. Other antioxidants such as Vitamin C or Vitamin E are very large by comparison. They must also be digested, absorbed, transported and finally taken up by the cells. H2 penetrates the stomach lining quickly and acts inside the cells immediately. It’s able to get into every part of the cell more quickly protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against damaging oxidative stress.
• Each molecule of H2 neutralizes two free radicals. It easily separates into two slightly charged atoms that neutralize the free radicals created from our daily oxidative stress. In the process, it creates water thus hydrating the cells.
• H2 is selective and targets only “bad” free radicals. Oxygen radicals are extremely damaging. However, your body also produces “good” free radicals, which serve useful purposes. Other antioxidants only partially neutralize radicals, both the good and bad ones. Worse, these antioxidants can then become free radicals themselves once they’ve done their job. H2 selectively goes after only the bad radicals and unlike other antioxidants, neutralizes them completely.
The Best Anti-Aging Supplement?
Our modern lifestyle has greatly increased the oxidative stress on our body, leading to alarmingly increased rates of chronic disease and poor health. As a culture, we are out of balance and aging and we lack something to naturally and universally address the decline that comes with aging. The science is clear: H2 is a powerful and effective foundation for better health, wellness, and slowing the aging process.
• H2 reduces inflammation and pain. As we age, we ache more. For inflammation, H2 has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory. It is also can potentially modify the switched on genes that create a constant state inflammation.
• H2 supports optimal cognitive function. The brain is 2-4% of your body’s weight but consumes 20-40% of the oxygen you breathe. Since 2-5% of the oxygen you breathe turns into free radicals, your brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress damage. H2 neutralizes excess free radicals that occur in the brain.
• H2 promotes cellular health. Research shows H2 alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.
• H2 activates production of your own antioxidant levels. H2 triggers activation of antioxidant enzymes in the body (e.g., glutathione peroxidase, super-oxide dismutase, catalase, etc.) and/or proteins that protect the cell. Each one of these enzymes takes care of different kinds of free radicals, and they work together to keep the cells healthy.
Exerciser? Athlete? H2 is Your Secret Weapon
Athletes and people who exercise experience more oxidative stress than sedentary individuals. They are also more vulnerable to the effects of chronic dehydration.
• H2 helps Improve Energy Levels. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the fuel that powers your cells during physical activity. Research shows H2 increases ATP production, helping you maintain high energy and better performance.
• H2 Improves Performance and Recovery Time. When you exercise, your lactic acid increases, leading to fatigue, muscle damage, decreased endurance, reduced performance, and poor results. Peer-reviewed research on athletes shows that H2 decreases lactic acid levels leading to better performance and faster recovery.
• H2 Reduces Oxidative Stress. When we exercise we use more oxygen generating more damaging oxygen radicals leading to increased oxidative stress. H2 easily enters sub-cellular compartments helping to protect them from damaging cytotoxic oxygen radicals.
• H2 Improves Your Hydration. When H2 molecules combine with and neutralize damaging oxygen radicals, they are transformed into water (H2O) – increasing your cellular hydration. H2 infused alkaline water is also better absorbed by the body than regular tap water.
To summarize, whether at work or play, old or young, healthy or unhealthy, H2 offers everyone a wide range of powerful benefits. Most supplements have one mechanism of action; H2 offers many. It has a very solid and growing body of science to back up its therapeutic benefits.
So if you’re interested in optimizing your health and well-being, enjoying more energy and better mental clarity and improving your athletic performance, then what are you waiting for? Give your body the ability to thrive naturally. Join the H2 revolution. Do what got results in the research and drink H2 infused water. H2 infused UltraWater from AlkaViva is the perfect, easy and convenient way to get the cleanest and healthiest hydrogen-rich water.
Written by: Marissa Morningstaur on June 29, 2016.on June 30, 2016.
New model predicts once-mysterious chemical reactions: Understanding of molecular hydrogen has implications from industry to medicine
A team of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Curtin University in Australia developed a theoretical model to forecast the fundamental chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen (H2), which after many decades and attempts by scientists had remained largely unpredicted and unsolved.
"Chemical reactions are the basis of life so predicting what happens during these reactions is of great importance to science and has major implications in innovation, industry and medicine," said Mark Zammit, a post-doctorate fellow in the Physics and Chemistry of Materials group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. "Our model is the first to very accurately calculate the probability of fundamental electron-molecular hydrogen reactions."
Zammit and the team conducted research into the fundamental chemical reactions of atoms and molecules to better understand the physics and chemistry of materials. This work is part of Los Alamos' Nuclear and Particles Future science pillar, which supports the Lab in its national security mission by integrating nuclear experiments, theory and simulation to understand and engineer complex nuclear phenomena.
Molecular hydrogen--two hydrogen atoms bound together--is the most abundant molecule in the universe. It is present in interstellar space and in the atmospheres of gas giants. It is used industrially in the production of fossil fuels, cleaning products and plasmas. It also has therapeutic potential in human organs.
In interstellar space, solar winds (a source of electrons) collide with gas clouds of H2, which then emit light. This light carries vital information about past events in the universe. To decipher this information, scientists look at the underlying chemical reaction that took place, which is relatively simple--an electron colliding with H2.
Starting from the first principles of quantum mechanics and utilizing supercomputers, Zammit and the team's program calculate the probability of chemical reactions, such as the ionization (removal of an electron) or electron excitation of a molecule. Their model's new results for electrons colliding with H2 agree with accurate experiments and will have direct implications in the modeling of fusion plasmas, design of aerospace materials (for atmospheric entry), astrophysics and atmospheric modeling.
These results will also be used to understand basic questions about nature such as the cooling mechanisms of the early universe and the formation of planets and stars.
With the framework of the method set, Zammit and colleagues are now turning their attention to other molecules of astrophysical, medical and industrial importance, as well as extending the method to model molecular collisions with positrons, protons and anti-protons.
This research was recently published in the journal Physical Review Lettersand will be the subject of several presentations at international conferences and coordinated research projects this year.
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
With 1,600 scientists worldwide studying molecular hydrogen, the current number of 600 published studies and reviews is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years. At this time, the scientific community has indicated that molecular hydrogen could be beneficial in more than 170 diseases and for every organ in the human body.
Here are some of the scientifically accepted benefits of including H2 in your diet:
• H2 neutralizes/reduces the most harmful free radical (hydroxyl radical), converting it to water according to the reaction: H2 + 2*OH -> 2H2O. The human body is unable to do this on its own.
• The byproduct formed when H2 neutralizes a hydroxy radical is water, while other antioxidants must either be neutralized as they become free radicals themselves after donating their electrons, or they must be removed entirely from the body.
• H2 does not neutralize other free radicals which are required by the body for normal function. This may not be the case for other antioxidants.
• H2 reduces oxidative stress by reducing the hydroxyl radical, the most damaging free radical our body produces.
• H2 reduces inflammation which is associated with many diseases.
• H2 is the smallest molecule (1/88 the size of Vitamin C) allowing it to be effective in areas such as the mitochondria that other much larger antioxidants and supplements are incapable of reaching.
• H2 helps your body naturally produce (up-regulate) other antioxidants such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.
• H2 helps athletes in numerous ways including reducing lactate (lactic acid) production which can limit performance and training and published studies show H2 helps athletes recover faster from workouts.
• Unlike other antioxidants, no evidence has been found that you can take too much H2.
What depletes glutathione (GSH) levels in our bodies can be put into two categories - Internal and external factors.
Internal factors include the increasing need for glutathione as an important part of various processes in our bodies, such as, food for our immune system, recycling of vitamin C, vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid, repairing our DNA, and protecting our cells from oxidative stress to mention a few.
Many external factors are what depletes glutathione the most.
Many toxic and harmful substances that we are exposed to on a daily basis require considerable amounts of glutathione for detoxification.
Some of these substances are listed below:
Other external factors that deplete glutathione:
This list of what depletes glutathione in your body, though incomplete, is quite remarkable.
We cannot completely avoid all of these substances. But we can minimize our exposure in most instances by making simple changes to our daily habits.
Hydrogen-rich water improves neurological functional recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.
Zhao M1, Liu MD2, Pu YY2, Wang D2, Xie Y2, Xue GC2, Jiang Y2, Yang QQ2, Sun XJ3, Cao L4.Author information
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The high costs, inconvenient administration, and side effects of current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs often lead to poor adherence to the long-term treatment of MS. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we explored the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for MS. We found that prophylactic administration of both 0.36mM and 0.89mM HRW was able to delay EAE onset and reduce maximum clinical scores. Moreover, 0.89mM HRW also reduced disease severity, CNS infiltration, and demyelination when administered after the onset of disease. Furthermore, HRW treatment prevented infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes into the CNS and inhibited Th17 cell development without affecting Th1 cell populations. Because HRW is non-toxic, inexpensive, easily administered, and can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, our experiments suggest that HRW may have great potential in the treatment of MS.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
KEYWORDS: CD4(+) T lymphocytes; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Hydrogen-rich water; Multiple sclerosis; TH17
[PubMed - in process]
Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors.
Kang et al. Medical Gas Research 2011, 1:11 http://www.medicalgasresearch.com/content/1/1/11
Background: Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy often experience fatigue and impaired quality of life (QOL). Many side effects of radiotherapy are believed to be associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxygen species during radiotherapy. Hydrogen can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas, has antioxidant properties, and reduces inflammation in tissues. This study examined whether hydrogen treatment, in the form of hydrogen-supplemented water, improved QOL in patients receiving radiotherapy.
Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of drinking hydrogen- rich water on 49 patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. Hydrogen-rich water was produced by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (final hydrogen concentration; 0.55~0.65 mM). The Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer’s QLQ-C30 instrument was used to evaluate global health status and QOL. The concentration of derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites and biological antioxidant power in the peripheral blood were assessed.
Results: The consumption of hydrogen-rich water for 6 weeks reduced reactive oxygen metabolites in the blood and maintained blood oxidation potential. QOL scores during radiotherapy were significantly improved in patients treated with hydrogen-rich water compared to patients receiving placebo water. There was no difference in tumor response to radiotherapy between the two groups.
Conclusions: Daily consumption of hydrogen-rich water is a potentially novel, therapeutic strategy for improving QOL after radiation exposure. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation- induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects.
Download the full report here
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often associated with persistent pains such as neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Hydrogen gas can reduce ROS and alleviate cerebral, myocardial, and hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injuries. In the present study, authors aim to investigate whether hydrogen-rich saline can reduce neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group was administered sodium chloride by intrathecal injection (n=10); control groups underwent CCI surgery and were administered sodium chloride by intrathecal injection (n=10); vehicle group underwent CCI surgery and was administered hydrogen-rich saline by intrathecal injection (n=10). Drugs were administered in the dose of 100ul/kg once a day at 0.5 hours before and 1-7 day after CCI surgery. The mechanical thresholds were tested at one day before and 3-14 day after CCI surgery. Authors found that hydrogen-rich saline significantly elevated the mechanical thresholds of neuropathic pain compared to vehicle (physiologic saline) control in CCI rats (p<0.05); it also decreased the levels of myeloperoxidase, maleic dialdehyde, and protein carbonyl in spinal cord by 7 days post-chronic constriction injury(p<0.05). In addition, hydrogen-rich saline also suppressed the expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord by 7 days post-chronic constriction injury (p<0.01, p<0.01, respectively), but had no effect on P2X4R (p>0.05), an ATP receptor. Intrathecal injection of hydrogen-rich saline can decrease oxidative stress and the expression of p38MAPK and BDNF that may contribute to the elevated threshold of neuropathic pain in rat CCI model.
Chen Q, Chen P, Zhou S, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuated neuropathic pain by reducing oxidative stress. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013 Nov;40(6):857-63.
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