From Alka Viva
What if there was a single natural way to reduce pain and inflammation? To improve your energy, cognitive function, exercise performance and recovery? To neutralize harmful free radicals and support your body’s enzyme and antioxidant production? And to also hydrate your cells plus generally support your overall health and wellness?
Scientists have discovered that H2 – molecular hydrogen or diatomic hydrogen – has all of these properties and more. H2 has become a major area of scientific research.
The Healing Property In Healing Waters
Around the world there are well-known natural water sources or springs that offer healing or curative properties. Scientists have recently found H2 in samples analyzed from Nordenau (Germany), Tlacote (Mexico) and Hita Tenryosui, Japan. 1-3 The existence of H2 in these springs (and others) could be a result of water reacting with alkali-earth metals, or from molecular hydrogen gas-producing bacteria and algae. 4 Regardless, the available science regarding H2 and its benefits seems to explain their healing properties.
What Is Molecular Hydrogen?
Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element appearing first on the Periodic Table of Elements. Molecular hydrogen is also the smallest molecule consisting of just one electron and one proton. Because of its tiny size, it is able to permeate even sub-cellular structures such as the mitochondria making it extremely bioavailable. It even crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is colorless, odorless, non-metallic, non-toxic and tasteless.
Molecular Hydrogen Research
The body of science regarding health benefits of H2 has advanced rapidly in recent years thanks to the studies done by research scientists around the globe. Over 600 peer-reviewed articles have been published on the impact of H2 on humans, animals, and individual cells. 5 It shows that H2 regulates over 200 biomolecules and appears to provide benefit in 166 health conditions and disease models, affecting virtually every organ in the human body. H2 operates on human metabolism in three primary areas:
• H2 rapidly and easily converts toxic free (hydroxyl OH-) radicals to water (H2 + 2 OH – > 2 H2O);
• H2 maintains antioxidant homeostasis. In other words, the body’s own antioxidants are leveraged and maintained; and
• H2 supports cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This impacts inflammation, obesity, and aging mechanisms.
Molecular Hydrogen Is Safe And Natural
H2 is not foreign to the body like a pharmaceutical drug. Your body produces small amounts of H2 gas from the bacteria in your digestive tract as it digests vegetable fibers, which diffuse into the bloodstream. Research shows that delivering H2 in higher concentrations than your body can produce is much more effective. In fact, drinking water infused with H2 was used in most of the studies and is the most effective way to deliver its powerful benefits.
H2 science is moving quickly beyond theory to practical applications. H2 ionizers and generators allow medical professionals and consumers to leverage the health benefits of H2.
“The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.”
Medical Gas Research 2015; 5:12
Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen
“It is not an overestimate to say that hydrogen’s impact on therapeutic and preventative medicine could be enormous in the future.”
Free Radical Research 2010
Why H2 Is A Superlative Antioxidant
Chronic oxidative stress has been identified as one of the major causes of aging and modern chronic diseases. Everyone knows that there are many antioxidants available. However, they have shown only limited success in therapeutic trials.
H2 has some distinct advantages, causing researchers to propose it as a NOVEL antioxidant with superior therapeutic and preventive applications.
• H2 is the smallest molecule. Other antioxidants such as Vitamin C or Vitamin E are very large by comparison. They must also be digested, absorbed, transported and finally taken up by the cells. H2 penetrates the stomach lining quickly and acts inside the cells immediately. It’s able to get into every part of the cell more quickly protecting DNA, RNA, and proteins against damaging oxidative stress.
• Each molecule of H2 neutralizes two free radicals. It easily separates into two slightly charged atoms that neutralize the free radicals created from our daily oxidative stress. In the process, it creates water thus hydrating the cells.
• H2 is selective and targets only “bad” free radicals. Oxygen radicals are extremely damaging. However, your body also produces “good” free radicals, which serve useful purposes. Other antioxidants only partially neutralize radicals, both the good and bad ones. Worse, these antioxidants can then become free radicals themselves once they’ve done their job. H2 selectively goes after only the bad radicals and unlike other antioxidants, neutralizes them completely.
The Best Anti-Aging Supplement?
Our modern lifestyle has greatly increased the oxidative stress on our body, leading to alarmingly increased rates of chronic disease and poor health. As a culture, we are out of balance and aging and we lack something to naturally and universally address the decline that comes with aging. The science is clear: H2 is a powerful and effective foundation for better health, wellness, and slowing the aging process.
• H2 reduces inflammation and pain. As we age, we ache more. For inflammation, H2 has been shown to be a powerful anti-inflammatory. It is also can potentially modify the switched on genes that create a constant state inflammation.
• H2 supports optimal cognitive function. The brain is 2-4% of your body’s weight but consumes 20-40% of the oxygen you breathe. Since 2-5% of the oxygen you breathe turns into free radicals, your brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress damage. H2 neutralizes excess free radicals that occur in the brain.
• H2 promotes cellular health. Research shows H2 alters cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression. This may explain its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-apoptotic (or anti-cell death) effects.
• H2 activates production of your own antioxidant levels. H2 triggers activation of antioxidant enzymes in the body (e.g., glutathione peroxidase, super-oxide dismutase, catalase, etc.) and/or proteins that protect the cell. Each one of these enzymes takes care of different kinds of free radicals, and they work together to keep the cells healthy.
Exerciser? Athlete? H2 is Your Secret Weapon
Athletes and people who exercise experience more oxidative stress than sedentary individuals. They are also more vulnerable to the effects of chronic dehydration.
• H2 helps Improve Energy Levels. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is the fuel that powers your cells during physical activity. Research shows H2 increases ATP production, helping you maintain high energy and better performance.
• H2 Improves Performance and Recovery Time. When you exercise, your lactic acid increases, leading to fatigue, muscle damage, decreased endurance, reduced performance, and poor results. Peer-reviewed research on athletes shows that H2 decreases lactic acid levels leading to better performance and faster recovery.
• H2 Reduces Oxidative Stress. When we exercise we use more oxygen generating more damaging oxygen radicals leading to increased oxidative stress. H2 easily enters sub-cellular compartments helping to protect them from damaging cytotoxic oxygen radicals.
• H2 Improves Your Hydration. When H2 molecules combine with and neutralize damaging oxygen radicals, they are transformed into water (H2O) – increasing your cellular hydration. H2 infused alkaline water is also better absorbed by the body than regular tap water.
To summarize, whether at work or play, old or young, healthy or unhealthy, H2 offers everyone a wide range of powerful benefits. Most supplements have one mechanism of action; H2 offers many. It has a very solid and growing body of science to back up its therapeutic benefits.
So if you’re interested in optimizing your health and well-being, enjoying more energy and better mental clarity and improving your athletic performance, then what are you waiting for? Give your body the ability to thrive naturally. Join the H2 revolution. Do what got results in the research and drink H2 infused water. H2 infused UltraWater from AlkaViva is the perfect, easy and convenient way to get the cleanest and healthiest hydrogen-rich water.
Written by: Marissa Morningstaur on June 29, 2016.on June 30, 2016.
New model predicts once-mysterious chemical reactions: Understanding of molecular hydrogen has implications from industry to medicine
A team of researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Curtin University in Australia developed a theoretical model to forecast the fundamental chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen (H2), which after many decades and attempts by scientists had remained largely unpredicted and unsolved.
"Chemical reactions are the basis of life so predicting what happens during these reactions is of great importance to science and has major implications in innovation, industry and medicine," said Mark Zammit, a post-doctorate fellow in the Physics and Chemistry of Materials group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. "Our model is the first to very accurately calculate the probability of fundamental electron-molecular hydrogen reactions."
Zammit and the team conducted research into the fundamental chemical reactions of atoms and molecules to better understand the physics and chemistry of materials. This work is part of Los Alamos' Nuclear and Particles Future science pillar, which supports the Lab in its national security mission by integrating nuclear experiments, theory and simulation to understand and engineer complex nuclear phenomena.
Molecular hydrogen--two hydrogen atoms bound together--is the most abundant molecule in the universe. It is present in interstellar space and in the atmospheres of gas giants. It is used industrially in the production of fossil fuels, cleaning products and plasmas. It also has therapeutic potential in human organs.
In interstellar space, solar winds (a source of electrons) collide with gas clouds of H2, which then emit light. This light carries vital information about past events in the universe. To decipher this information, scientists look at the underlying chemical reaction that took place, which is relatively simple--an electron colliding with H2.
Starting from the first principles of quantum mechanics and utilizing supercomputers, Zammit and the team's program calculate the probability of chemical reactions, such as the ionization (removal of an electron) or electron excitation of a molecule. Their model's new results for electrons colliding with H2 agree with accurate experiments and will have direct implications in the modeling of fusion plasmas, design of aerospace materials (for atmospheric entry), astrophysics and atmospheric modeling.
These results will also be used to understand basic questions about nature such as the cooling mechanisms of the early universe and the formation of planets and stars.
With the framework of the method set, Zammit and colleagues are now turning their attention to other molecules of astrophysical, medical and industrial importance, as well as extending the method to model molecular collisions with positrons, protons and anti-protons.
This research was recently published in the journal Physical Review Lettersand will be the subject of several presentations at international conferences and coordinated research projects this year.
The above post is reprinted from materials provided by DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
With 1,600 scientists worldwide studying molecular hydrogen, the current number of 600 published studies and reviews is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years. At this time, the scientific community has indicated that molecular hydrogen could be beneficial in more than 170 diseases and for every organ in the human body.
Here are some of the scientifically accepted benefits of including H2 in your diet:
• H2 neutralizes/reduces the most harmful free radical (hydroxyl radical), converting it to water according to the reaction: H2 + 2*OH -> 2H2O. The human body is unable to do this on its own.
• The byproduct formed when H2 neutralizes a hydroxy radical is water, while other antioxidants must either be neutralized as they become free radicals themselves after donating their electrons, or they must be removed entirely from the body.
• H2 does not neutralize other free radicals which are required by the body for normal function. This may not be the case for other antioxidants.
• H2 reduces oxidative stress by reducing the hydroxyl radical, the most damaging free radical our body produces.
• H2 reduces inflammation which is associated with many diseases.
• H2 is the smallest molecule (1/88 the size of Vitamin C) allowing it to be effective in areas such as the mitochondria that other much larger antioxidants and supplements are incapable of reaching.
• H2 helps your body naturally produce (up-regulate) other antioxidants such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.
• H2 helps athletes in numerous ways including reducing lactate (lactic acid) production which can limit performance and training and published studies show H2 helps athletes recover faster from workouts.
• Unlike other antioxidants, no evidence has been found that you can take too much H2.
What depletes glutathione (GSH) levels in our bodies can be put into two categories - Internal and external factors.
Internal factors include the increasing need for glutathione as an important part of various processes in our bodies, such as, food for our immune system, recycling of vitamin C, vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid, repairing our DNA, and protecting our cells from oxidative stress to mention a few.
Many external factors are what depletes glutathione the most.
Many toxic and harmful substances that we are exposed to on a daily basis require considerable amounts of glutathione for detoxification.
Some of these substances are listed below:
Other external factors that deplete glutathione:
This list of what depletes glutathione in your body, though incomplete, is quite remarkable.
We cannot completely avoid all of these substances. But we can minimize our exposure in most instances by making simple changes to our daily habits.
Hydrogen-rich water improves neurological functional recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.
Zhao M1, Liu MD2, Pu YY2, Wang D2, Xie Y2, Xue GC2, Jiang Y2, Yang QQ2, Sun XJ3, Cao L4.Author information
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The high costs, inconvenient administration, and side effects of current Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs often lead to poor adherence to the long-term treatment of MS. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we explored the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on the progress of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model for MS. We found that prophylactic administration of both 0.36mM and 0.89mM HRW was able to delay EAE onset and reduce maximum clinical scores. Moreover, 0.89mM HRW also reduced disease severity, CNS infiltration, and demyelination when administered after the onset of disease. Furthermore, HRW treatment prevented infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes into the CNS and inhibited Th17 cell development without affecting Th1 cell populations. Because HRW is non-toxic, inexpensive, easily administered, and can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, our experiments suggest that HRW may have great potential in the treatment of MS.
Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
KEYWORDS: CD4(+) T lymphocytes; Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; Hydrogen-rich water; Multiple sclerosis; TH17
[PubMed - in process]
Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors.
Kang et al. Medical Gas Research 2011, 1:11 http://www.medicalgasresearch.com/content/1/1/11
Background: Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy often experience fatigue and impaired quality of life (QOL). Many side effects of radiotherapy are believed to be associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxygen species during radiotherapy. Hydrogen can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas, has antioxidant properties, and reduces inflammation in tissues. This study examined whether hydrogen treatment, in the form of hydrogen-supplemented water, improved QOL in patients receiving radiotherapy.
Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate the effects of drinking hydrogen- rich water on 49 patients receiving radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. Hydrogen-rich water was produced by placing a metallic magnesium stick into drinking water (final hydrogen concentration; 0.55~0.65 mM). The Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer’s QLQ-C30 instrument was used to evaluate global health status and QOL. The concentration of derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites and biological antioxidant power in the peripheral blood were assessed.
Results: The consumption of hydrogen-rich water for 6 weeks reduced reactive oxygen metabolites in the blood and maintained blood oxidation potential. QOL scores during radiotherapy were significantly improved in patients treated with hydrogen-rich water compared to patients receiving placebo water. There was no difference in tumor response to radiotherapy between the two groups.
Conclusions: Daily consumption of hydrogen-rich water is a potentially novel, therapeutic strategy for improving QOL after radiation exposure. Consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation- induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects.
Download the full report here
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often associated with persistent pains such as neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Hydrogen gas can reduce ROS and alleviate cerebral, myocardial, and hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injuries. In the present study, authors aim to investigate whether hydrogen-rich saline can reduce neuropathic pain in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group was administered sodium chloride by intrathecal injection (n=10); control groups underwent CCI surgery and were administered sodium chloride by intrathecal injection (n=10); vehicle group underwent CCI surgery and was administered hydrogen-rich saline by intrathecal injection (n=10). Drugs were administered in the dose of 100ul/kg once a day at 0.5 hours before and 1-7 day after CCI surgery. The mechanical thresholds were tested at one day before and 3-14 day after CCI surgery. Authors found that hydrogen-rich saline significantly elevated the mechanical thresholds of neuropathic pain compared to vehicle (physiologic saline) control in CCI rats (p<0.05); it also decreased the levels of myeloperoxidase, maleic dialdehyde, and protein carbonyl in spinal cord by 7 days post-chronic constriction injury(p<0.05). In addition, hydrogen-rich saline also suppressed the expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord by 7 days post-chronic constriction injury (p<0.01, p<0.01, respectively), but had no effect on P2X4R (p>0.05), an ATP receptor. Intrathecal injection of hydrogen-rich saline can decrease oxidative stress and the expression of p38MAPK and BDNF that may contribute to the elevated threshold of neuropathic pain in rat CCI model.
Chen Q, Chen P, Zhou S, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuated neuropathic pain by reducing oxidative stress. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013 Nov;40(6):857-63.
3 Jun 2016 | By Rhea Healy
Clinical research for ‘hydrogen inhalation therapy’ in more than 10 hospitals across Japan has proved it can help patients who have suffered from cardiac arrests.
The research, initially conducted on laboratory rats in 2012, proved that damage to brain functions and heart muscle tissues was reduced by inhaling hydrogen (H2) after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
The research accelerated from February this year, and patients who had been resuscitated after cardiopulmonary arrest were given a mixture of 98% O2 and 2% H2 to inhale for up to 18 hours. The research, which is based on a random patient selection process, will continue to be conducted for a further two years with a total of 360 individual cases examined.
Prof. Masaru Suzuki, Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine at Keio University Hospital, explained the details of the clinical study, “It is called the Double Blind Method – we are kept completely uninformed as to which patient has inhaled H2. We are conducting 360 cases, of which half inhale H2and half do not. The half that do not inhale H2 undergo regular treatment.”
If there is a clear effect, H2 will become a gas medicinal product which will have a big impact in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation
“We began research in 2013 to see if H2 could be skilfully mixed in with the O2 and air that the patient inhales and we did experiments to see if it could feasibly be administered to patients.”
“Common ventilators usually use platinum sensors for flow measurements but platinum actually becomes a catalyst when H2 is passed through so it cannot be used in this case. Instead, an ultrasonic type sensor was employed to monitor flow measurements.”
“A premixed gas composed of 96% N2 and 4% H2 from a cylinder is mixed with O2 from ventilators prior to patient inhalation. Inserting more than 4% H2 directly into O2 is dangerous on account of the explosion threshold, so at this stage we are using just 2% of H2.”
Suzuki continued and explained, “Medication dissolves in the blood and is carried throughout the body and there is the possibility that H2 diffuses without relying on blood flow, meaning it can easily pass through the blood brain barrier and even into the brain cells themselves. Additionally, because the heart and lungs are close to each other, when inhaled, H2 has the potential to reach the heart via diffusion, which can then be carried throughout the body.”
“Through experiments on animals, we have discovered that the positive effects from H2 inhalation is high. We would like to clarify these effects on people and verify the effectiveness of this method of treatment.”
“If there is a clear effect, H2 will become a gas medicinal product which will have a big impact in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Research is moving fast across the world and it will eventually become a combined international investigation.”
“If this H2 inhalation therapy works with cardiopulmonary arrest, it would mean that even under the most severe conditions this treatment is effective. I think the potential for H2 in medical uses will spread endlessly on the back of this medical research,” he concluded.
Source:The Gas Review, issue no. 419
METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION
There are a number of methods to consume molecular hydrogen gas (H2), including inhalation of H2, injection of H2-rich saline, dropping H2-rich saline into eyes, taking a bath in H2-rich water, increasing H2 production by intestinal bacteria, topical application, oral ingestion of hydrogen producing tablets, and simply drinking H2-rich water.
WHICH METHOD IS THE BEST?
Each one of these methods have a therapeutic effect. Although drinking H2-rich water doesn’t provide as many hydrogen molecules to the body as other methods, it is likely the easiest and a very effective approach. In fact in one study using a rat model of Parkinson’s disease, it was seen that drinking H2-rich water, but not inhaling 2% H2 gas or increasing intestinal H2 production via lactulose administration, was effective.
Perhaps this is because inhaling H2 gas and H2 gas production via the bacteria gives a continuous exposure of H211 (allowing homeostasis to be achieved), but drinking H2 water gives an intermittent exposure. Indeed this same study showed that intermittent inhalation of 2% H2 was somewhat effective. Another reason that drinking H2 water is important is because it allows gastric induction of ghrelin, which is mediated via activation of beta 1 adrenergic receptors. The consensus is that not only is drinking H2-rich water the easiest, it is often the most effective.
METHODS TO PRODUCE H2-RICH WATER
There are a number of ways to produce H2 water, including electrolysis (e.g. water ionizers, or hydrogen specific devices), reaction of water with alkali-earth metals (e.g. magnesium), or simply bubbling H2 gas into water.
1. WATER IONIZERS (ELECTROLYSIS)
Water ionizers produce hydrogen gas by the means of electrolysis. Electrolysis of water is perhaps the most well-known method, as it is the primary mode of mass-producing molecular hydrogen gas for energy. The hydrogen gas concentration from water ionizers various significantly from less than 0.05 ppm to over 2.5 ppm depending on source water, flow rate, design, and cleanliness of the electrodes. Importantly alkaline water ionizers were developed decades before it was known of the therapeutic importance of molecular hydrogen, thus these units were optimized for alkaline pH not high dissolved hydrogen concentration. Typically, at normal flow and normal source water the concentration of H2 from an alkaline water ionizer is around 0.1 ppm to 0.7 ppm. By running the water very slowly, these machines may increase the molecular hydrogen concentration, but the resulting pH is very high making the water unpalatable.
The ability to produce high concentrations of molecular hydrogen at a palatable pH (less than 9.5 or neutral), and what is required to maintain this concentration are an important parameters when considering one of these machines. Unfortunately, most water ionizer companies not only don’t know the concentration of H2 their machine produces, but they have no idea that it is really the H2 that matters, of which ORP is only indicative of the presence, but not a measurement of the concentration.
Another method of producing hydrogen-rich water using electrolysis is by H2 infusion. That is hydrogen gas is produced and then directly infused into the filtered water in the machine. This allows for the easy production of high concentration of hydrogen water at neutral pH in a flow-through system. There are also batch type systems, which are on the market.
2. METALS + WATER = MOLECULAR HYDROGEN
Another convenient and easy method to produce H2-rich water is by adding alkali-earth metals to water.15 It is well-known for example that adding sodium or potassium metal to water results in a fiery explosion. Notice this is the metallic form not an ionic salt (i.e. sodium metal not sodium chloride [Na+ Cl–]). The reason that this reaction occurs is because the metals rapidly give off their outer valance electron to the water, which produces molecular hydrogen and sodium hydroxide: (3Na + 2H2O –> H2 + NaOH). The produced sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissociates to form sodium ions (Na+) and hydroxide ions (OH–) according to: NaOH –> Na+ + OH–. These metals react so violently with water that enough heat is produced to ignite the produced hydrogen gas.
Magnesium metal also reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas: [Mg + 2H2O –> H2 + Mg(OH)2]. The magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH–)2) dissociates into magnesium ions (Mg2+ ) and hydroxide ions (OH-) according to the equilibrium: Mg(OH)2 <–> Mg2+ + 2OH– 24 However, the reaction is not as exothermic and thus does not carry any risk of explosion.
This method of hydrogen-rich water production is commonly used amongst researchers for human studies, because of it’s ease of use. The concentration of molecular hydrogen is generally near saturation (1.6 ppm), which allows the subjects to ingest greater quantities of molecular hydrogen without having to consume a copious volume of water (1 liter vs. 10 liters).
There are magnesium sticks that can be placed in water, magnesium tablets that can be consumed (which produces H2 in the stomach), or other ones that can be added to water and will quickly produce a 2-4 ppm H2 concentration, and also water filter containing magnesium media. Like electrolysis, these methods all increase the pH of the water as they reduce the H+ ion concentration.
3. SUPERSATURATION (H2 GAS INHALATION)
There are also methods which are capable of producing a supersaturated concentration of molecular hydrogen at very high concentrations. Not all of these methods alter the pH of the water and some can be used in any beverage of choice. The potential advantage of this method is the ability to ingest large amounts of the H2 molecule without having to drink enormous amounts of water (500 mL vs. 15 liters).
(Adapted from an article by Molecular Hydrogen Foundation)
Blog Quick Links