"The first line of the second paragraph says it all: Molecular Hydrogen is a source of fuel for microbial life". In space and in your gut. Molecular hydrogen is the most abundant fuel in the universe!
By Tyler Lebaron
Many people wonder what the differences are between molecular hydrogen and antioxidants found in foods. This is a somewhat difficult question to answer because you really can’t compare them directly to each other, as it is a little more complicated than that. You can’t eliminate molecular hydrogen and expect to get all the same benefits from the antioxidants in foods, nor can you simply ingest molecular hydrogen and obtain the benefits of the antioxidants present in foods.
Some of the antioxidants in foods are essential nutrients,1 like vitamin C.2 This antioxidant does more than just neutralize free radicals3, but also plays an important role in areas like collagen synthesis.4 We must not fall into the trap of thinking that consuming X amount of molecular hydrogen is equivalent to consuming X amount of antioxidant-rich foods.
What gets rid of more free radicals: Vitamin C or molecular hydrogen?Based on stoichiometry, one molecule of vitamin C can theoretically neutralize two free radicals, which is the same for molecular hydrogen.5 Drinking one liter of hydrogen-rich water at a concentration of 1.4 ppm, would provide you about the same number of “antioxidant molecules” (hydrogen gas), as ingesting 100 mg of “antioxidant molecules” (vitamin C). However, some of the used vitamin C molecules can be rejuvenated by the body and can be used again6, which is not the case with molecular hydrogen. On the other hand, molecular hydrogen can upregulate powerful antioxidant enzymes in the body,7 thus providing further protection,8 which vitamin C cannot do. Interestingly, vitamin C intake at high levels may actually prevent this upregulation from occurring.9
How are plant based antioxidants found in foods similar to molecular hydrogen?
References:1. Matarese, L. E., & Gottschlich, M. M. (1998). Contemporary nutrition support practice: a clinical guide. WB Saunders.
2. Chen, Q., Espey, M. G., Sun, A. Y., Pooput, C., Kirk, K. L., Krishna, M. C., & Levine, M. (2008). Pharmacologic doses of ascorbate act as a prooxidant and decrease growth of aggressive tumor xenografts in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(32), 11105-11109.
3. Arrigoni, Oreste, and Mario C. De Tullio. “Ascorbic acid: much more than just an antioxidant.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1569, no. 1 (2002): 1-9.
4. Murad, S., D. Grove, K. A. Lindberg, G. Reynolds, A. Sivarajah, and S. R. Pinnell. “Regulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 78, no. 5 (1981): 2879-2882.
5. Harris, D. C. (2010). Quantitative chemical analysis. Macmillan.
6. Washko, P. W., Wang, Y. A. O. H. U. I., & Levine, M. (1993). Ascorbic acid recycling in human neutrophils. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268(21), 15531-15535.
7. KAWAMURA, T., WAKABAYASHI, N., SHIGEMURA, N., HUANG, C. S., MASUTANI, K., TANAKA, Y., NODA, K., PENG, X., TAKAHASHI, T., BILLIAR, T. R., OKUMURA, M., TOYODA, Y., KENSLER, T. W. & NAKAO, A. (2013). Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304,L646-56.
8. XIE, K., YU, Y., HOU, L., CHEN, H., HAN, H., XIONG, L. & WANG, G. (2012). Nrf2 is critical in the protective role of hydrogen gas against murine polymicrobial sepsis. British Journal of Anaesthesia 108, 538-539.
9. Gomez-Cabrera, M. C., Domenech, E., & Viña, J. (2008). Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: upregulation of antioxidant genes by training. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44(2), 126-131.
10. CHRISTL, S. U., MURGATROYD, P. R., GIBSON, G. R. & CUMMINGS, J. H. (1992). Production, metabolism, and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine. Gastroenterology 102, 1269-77.
11. ZHANG, J. Y., LIU, C., ZHOU, L., QU, K., WANG, R. T., TAI, M. H., LEI, J. C. W. L., WU, Q. F. & WANG, Z. X. (2012). A Review of Hydrogen as a New Medical Therapy. Hepato-Gastroenterology 59, 1026-1032.
12. OHSAWA, I., ISHIKAWA, M., TAKAHASHI, K., WATANABE, M., NISHIMAKI, K., YAMAGATA, K., KATSURA, K., KATAYAMA, Y., ASOH, S. & OHTA, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nat Med 13, 688-694.
13. DIXON, B. J., TANG, J. & ZHANG, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Med Gas Res 3, 10.
14. OHTA, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17, 2241-52.
15. OHNO, K., ITO, M. & ICHIHARA, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2012, 353152.
BY TYLER IN ANTI-OXIDANTS, PLANTS ON JANUARY 24, 2014
Original Article here: http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/2014/01/24/what-are-the-differences-between-plant-based-antioxidants-and-molecular-hydrogen/
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By Thomas Ropp
This newly recognized antioxidant can help with everything from aging to autoimmune disease
A few years ago, the thought of molecular hydrogen might have conjured some strange sort of superhero power. Today, this antioxidant is being touted for its power to heal.
Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a tasteless, odorless, flammable gas that research links to helping battle aging and more than five dozen diseases including cancer, primarily by reducing oxidative stress.
“Hydrogen is a unique and superior molecule, because it can also activate the Nrf2 (life sustaining) pathway and increase the endogenous levels of glutathione and other antioxidants if they are lower then they should be,” says Tyler LeBaron, founder and executive director of the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation.
“Molecular hydrogen improves cellular communication and provides a cell modulating property to the body to help prevent the formation of free radicals,” says Ed Wunder, researcher with the Molecular Hydrogen Foundation.
Wunder compares the work of molecular hydrogen to a cleanup operation in a factory belching out black smoke. The black smoke represents toxic free radicals, and the factory represents cell mitochondria functioning poorly.
“Molecular hydrogen will not only clear up the black smoke by neutralizing the free radicals, but it will also go into the factory and fix what is wrong so that the black smoke will not be produced.”
A 2015 study reports that H2 may significantly help keep us better hydrated. A 2012 study concluded that drinking molecular hydrogen water was an effective fluid hydration strategy for athletes. This is significant considering studies show two of three people are partially dehydrated. Even light dehydration of no more than 2 percent of total body weight disturbs physiological functions and decreases the body’s efficiency. Metabolism and energy levels are directly affected, and this extends even further to mood and mental alertness.
There are several ways to get molecular hydrogen into your system including drinking hydrogen infused water, H2 inhalation, taking an H2 bath, or putting H2-saline into the eyes. The easiest and probably most efficient method is by simply dropping an H2 tablet in water and then drinking it. In all cases, molecular hydrogen enters the bloodstream and is transported throughout the body.
Molecular hydrogen can also be applied directly to areas of the body where injury and pain occur. Nationally recognized sports nutritionist, strength and conditioning coach Brandon Mentore, believes molecular hydrogen is “extremely important to health.”
“Hydrogen is the most significant element to life itself,” Mentore says. “Hydrogen has multiple cellular protective properties in the human body and has the ability to upregulate virtually all metabolic processes.”
10 Years Of Studies And High Praise
The medicinal properties of molecular hydrogen appear to have been touted as early as 1798. But it wasn’t until 1975, when Science published a Baylor University study on H2 as a possible treatment for cancer, that the mainstream scientific community took notice. Then in 2007, molecular hydrogen’s profile ascended to a new level with a study published in Nature Medicine, which demonstrated H2’s selective antioxidant properties. Since then, there have been hundreds of articles on molecular hydrogen’s therapeutic potential.
How It Works – A Closer Look
Scientific skepticism has played a large role in why molecular hydrogen is just now coming into its own. Researchers have had a hard time believing an inert gas with only two atoms (the minimum to form a molecule) could have health benefits. But it’s the smallness of molecular hydrogen that makes it an ideal antioxidant. It is possibly the only antioxidant molecule that can reach inside the mitochondria (power generators) of a cell.
“Hydrogen is a very small molecule, the smallest actually,” says LeBaron. “But its cell modulating properties in biological systems is what affords it with various anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-obestity effects.”
Another important factor is that molecular hydrogen is hydrophobic, meaning it is not diluted by water, which allows mitochondria access. In contrast, vitamin C as an antioxidant is hydrophilic, meaning it becomes diluted in water so it has problems in trying to pass through a cell’s fatty layer.
Working deep within the cellular level puts H2 in the perfect position to neutralize free radicals and reduce oxidative stress. Once inside the mitochondria, previous studies have shown that molecular hydrogen exerts anti-inflammatory properties and protects from noxious chemicals (cytoprotective) in addition to acting as an antioxidant.
There is also evidence that H2 can increase the production of the ghrelin hormone that protects the brain, vascular system, and liver.
All this takes place without unpleasant side effects because when H2 neutralizes a free-radical, the byproduct is water. And there doesn’t appear to be an upper limit of use. The more hydrogen infused water we consume the better, especially for those suffering from a particularly grave condition that needs to be turned around quickly.
10 Reasons To Use Molecular Hydrogen
1. Improves skin/fights aging – Molecular hydrogen is considered a novel antioxidant for combating oxidative damage in skin and promoting a youthful appearance. Japanese subjects showed significant improvements in neck wrinkles after bathing in H2 for 90 days.
2. May help prevent diabetes – In a 2011 study, scientists tested the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water in 30 patients with Type 2 diabetes. The patients drank 4 cups of hydrogen water each day for eight weeks. The condition of the patients generally improved and several showed no symptoms of the disease.
3. May battle cancerous tumors – Elevated rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS), collectively known as oxidative stress, have been detected in almost all cancers, where they promote many aspects of tumor development and progression. Molecular hydrogen tends to erase the oxidative stress underlying tumor growth.
4. Fights autoimmune disease – Because of its ability to decrease excessive free radicals, H2 can conceivably help battle lupus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases.
5. Reduces pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of bone and cartilage. A Japanese study proved that “Consumption of water containing a high concentration of molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.”
6. Corrects DNA damage – Wunder says H2 “corrects DNA damage in the cell’s mitochondria.” This would appear to be backed up by a study published in the July issue of the International Journal of Radiation Biology that concluded that “H2 exerts a significant protection against radiation-induced DNA base damage.”
7. Combats allergies – An allergic reaction is an immune reaction when the immune system overreacts to a molecule thinking it’s infectious. Molecular hydrogen calms this reaction.
8. Helps reduce fat – Drinking molecular hydrogen infused water decreases levels of plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride, similar to the effect of diet restrictions.
9. Improves cognitive function – Due to its ability to easily cross the blood brain barrier, molecular hydrogen may assist the well being of those with Parkinson’s disease. In rat models of Alzheimer’s disease, H2 prevented neuro inflammation and improved memory.
10. Faster sports injury recovery – Molecular hydrogen may have the potential to improve athletic performance and recovery. A 2012 study concluded, “Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function.”
By Tim Philp For The Expositor
Thursday, December 29, 2016 6:48:28 EST PM
A few months ago, I wrote about one of the most remarkable substances on our planet - dihydrogen monoxide, commonly known as water.
This substance is vital for life as we know it and it covers more than 70 per cent of our planet. Indeed, we are composed of about 60 per cent water. It is in the air that we breathe and the foods we eat. And it is a tremendous driver for our climate.
Water has many interesting properties, but we are still learning about this remarkable substance.
In its solid form, it can assume many different molecular arrangements. The molecules can form crystals in cubic, tetragonal, monodinic, rhombohedral and even non-crystalline forms, depending on pressures and how the ice was formed. It can be clear, blue, white and other colours depending on impurities lodged within it.
Ice can have different kinds of molecular symmetry and can even have dramatically different densities. There are 17 known crystalline forms of ice and ice can form at different temperatures depending upon pressure and impurities present in the water.
In gaseous form, water can be transparent to light, or it can bend light in interesting ways. As tiny water droplets, it can form clouds in the sky or fog on the ground. It can bend light into colourful rainbows and create halos known as moonbows or even sun dogs. Water is called the universal solvent because it is capable of dissolving many chemicals into solution and it is the entire basis for the chemical processes that keep us alive.
Because of the importance of water to our climate, our ecology and life itself, you would think that we would know all there is to know about this remarkable substance. That is a long way from the truth.
While there are many different forms of ice, it was always assumed that there was only one form of water. Now, it seems this might not be true. Recently, a team of scientists has reported that water appears to change some of its properties as its temperature increases.
The team measured properties, such as: thermal conductivity -- how well it conducts heat; refractive index -- how well it bends light; conductivity -- how well it conducts electricity; and the dielectric constant -- how well an electric field can propagate through the water. In each instance, the scientists noted that these properties changed when certain critical temperatures were reached.
For instance, between 40C and 65C, the value of each of these properties appeared to shift. At 50C, the refractive index changes, at 53C electrical conductivity changes, at 57C the surface tension changes and at 64C thermal conductivity shifts.
These changes were unsuspected by scientists. It is remarkable that, after all this time, we are still discovering new properties of such a common substance.
It is such a simple substance, too. Water comprises only three atoms - one oxygen atom linked with two hydrogen atoms. Atoms are the smallest building blocks of matter that have distinct chemical properties. You cannot split an atom of oxygen and still have oxygen. You can split them, but you will have other substances in their place.
The oxygen atom is linked with two hydrogen atoms by sharing electrons. This ionic bonding is strong, but they can be broken apart by applying energy such as electricity to the water and you will get hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Water molecules also form weak bonds with other water molecules. These bonds break and reform easily and this allows water in its liquid state to flow. It is also responsible for the surface tension of water that water striders use to walk over the surface of ponds.
The new discovery still needs to be confirmed by other scientists working to replicate these results, but, if confirmed, it presents a lot of interesting questions for biologists, in particular. Does the change in properties of water have any implications for how water is used by life? There are many organisms that thrive in temperatures where these phase transitions of water occur. Do these transitions help these organisms survive in such heat, or are there other reasons for their remarkable resistance to temperature.
I find it fascinating that such a simple and abundant substance can still surprise us. It is one reason that science can never grow stale - there is always something new to learn.
Tim Philp has enjoyed science since he was old enough to read. Having worked in technical fields all his life, he shares his love of science with readers weekly. He can be reached by e-mail at: firstname.lastname@example.org or via snail mail c/o The Expositor.
Progress in the study of biological effects of hydrogen on higher plants and its promising application in agriculture
Jiqing Zeng,1 Zhouheng Ye,2 and Xuejun Sun2
While the medical effects of hydrogen have been broadly analyzed, research into the effects of hydrogen on higher plants has often been of lesser concern. Recent studies on the botanical effects of hydrogen have shown that it is involved in signal transduction pathways of plant hormones and can improve the resistance of plants to stressors, such as drought, salinity, cold and heavy metals. In addition, hydrogen could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits. Observational evidence has also shown that hydrogen can regulate the flowering time of plants. These results indicate that hydrogen may have great potential applications within agricultural production, indicating that there may be a new ‘hydrogen agricultural era’ to come.
Hydrogen is the most widely distributed element in the world, accounting for more than 75% of the mass of the universe, and it is also the most abound element of human body composition. Hydrogen gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless, and was considered to be physiologically inert molecule, regarding as a potential resource for clean energy in future.
From 1930s to 1940s, some of the bacteria and algae were found capable of producing hydrogen. After going through more than half a century, gain little application did the industrialization of hydrogen production by bacteria and algae. But in 2007, things turned the corner. Scientists from Nippon Medical University published a paper about medical protective effect of hydrogen on Nature Medicine which completely updated our knowledge about hydrogen in biology-hydrogen can not only be considered as a source of energy, but also has an therapeutic potent in disease. In this study, the authors found that the hydrogen protected cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by selectively reducing · OH and ONOO- which are two most toxic reactive oxygen species in body. This surprising discovery immediately attracted numerous researchers all over the world, and variously new medical and biological effects of hydrogen have been reported after that. It is never coming to mind that hydrogen which had been implied as respiration gas in diving for its inactive in mammals now seems to become a “wonder drug” in fighting diseases. Some researchers in Japan and China have also developed variety of hydrogen related health products which are warmly pursued by the public. Therefore, many researchers also believed that, with deeper digging, hydrogen may play a major role in promoting human health.
Since hydrogen gradually becomes the most shining star in medicine, health care and cosmetic fields, gracefully waving in agricultural production is also hydrogen. People probably did not expect that hydrogen can be used not only for medical treatment and health care, but also may be widely applied to agricultural production. This may lead us to embrace the coming of “the era of hydrogen agricultural”!
Hydrogen production in higher plantsEarly in nineteenth century, researchers had realized the bacteria and algae could synthesis molecular hydrogen. In 1931, researchers reported the first bacteria enzyme which activates molecular hydrogen. In 1942, photochemical production of hydrogen in algae was firstly found. If most bacteria and algae could produce hydrogen under certain conditions, what about higher plants? Can higher plants produce hydrogen either?
In 1947, Boichenko claimed that chloroplasts isolated from algae can release hydrogen. Scientists naturally come to the assumption that higher plants whose leaves also contain chloroplasts may able to produce hydrogen. In the year of 1961, the evidence of higher plants leaves releasing and absorbing hydrogen was demonstrated by Sanadze. In 1964, Renwick and his colleges denoted that many higher plants could release hydrogen and exogenous hydrogen could promote the germination rate of winter rye seed. After that hydrogenase with activity of hydrogen production was isolated by Maione and Gibbs from the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. They had the hypothesis that hydrogenase should also exist in some higher plants. Then confirming evidences–release of hydrogen and detection of hydrogenase activity from barley roots–published by Torres showed that the higher plants can actually release hydrogen. Since then the study on higher plants for hydrogen production is ignored for a long time. One reason for that probably to get clean energy not for its biological effects was the firstly intention of investigating on hydrogen production. Another reason is that the inconvenience of hydrogen collection compared with collection in bacterial and algae.
Hydrogen effects on higher plants
The first finding of hydrogen effects on higher plants was in 1964, when Renwick et al. found hydrogen treated winter rye seeds germinate more rapidly than control. Unfortunately, scientists have not done further study since then. Hydrogen effects on higher plants have not been followed until health effects of hydrogen are generally concerned. Recently, researchers in China preliminarily studied hydrogen effects on higher plants, the results show that the hydrogen has important regulation effect on plant physiological function, especially plays an important role in plant resistance to abiotic stress. The study shows that hydrogen has an important effect on the mung bean, rice and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed germination, and the H2 pretreatment can improve the rice and Arabidopsis salt stress resistance.
Researchers at the Nanjing Agricultural University found that H2 pretreatment can induce the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1) gene, one of Alfalfa antioxidase gene, and enhance its enzyme activity, reducing the oxidative damage caused by paraquat. They presumed that H2 might function as an important gaseous molecule that alleviates oxidative stress via HO-1 signalling. They also found that the H2pretreatment can improve salt tolerance in rice and Arabidopsis, and the improvement of salt tolerance may be related to the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) injuries. In addition, they found that hydrogen enhances the resistance of alfalfa to cadmium and aluminum due to the improvement of alfalfa antioxidant capacity induced by hydrogen.
Researchers at the Southern China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Second Military Medical University in Shanghai confirmed the antioxidant role of hydrogen in rice seedlings, and found that antioxidant enzyme gene expression was induced by H2. In addition, upregulation of several phytohormone receptor genes and genes that encode a few key factors involved in plant signaling pathways was detected in rice seedlings treated with hydrogen water. H2 production was found to be induced by abscise acid, ethylene, and jasmonate acid, salt, and drought stress and was consistent with hydrogenase activity and the expression of putative hydrogenase genes in rice seedlings. The study suggests that hydrogen might be an important plant gaseous signaling molecules, which may participate in the regulation of plant hormone signaling pathways involved in plant growth and stress adaptation.
“Hydrogen agricultural era” is waving to us
A major feature of modern agriculture is the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides. Now, the abuse of pesticides and fertilizers causes serious environmental pollution, soil degradation and food safety issues. Due to the safety of H2, the convenience and economy of hydrogen water usage, the prospect of its application in agricultural production will be very attractive. Recently, some field trials done by several agricultural research institutions in China shows that hydrogen and hydrogen water seems to be valuable for agricultural production especially for soilless cultivation of crops, and may also have a positive effect on the nutritional value of crops. In the future, farmers may use hydrogen water to replace or partially substitute for pesticide and fertilizer to enhance crop resistance to disease, insect, drought and salinity stress, and improve product quality, increase the yield. How exciting the “hydrogen agricultural era” is! The application of hydrogen in agricultural production may be in the following aspects:
Seed germinationStudies show that H2 can promote the seed germination rate of winter rye and alfalfa. This finding may promote the application of hydrogen in improving the seed germination rate of plants.
Regulation of flowering time
It has been observed that roses and other plants change flowering time after treatment of hydrogen water. It was also found that hydrogen can regulate the expression of plant blossom related plant hormone receptor protein gene . This finding suggests that hydrogen water will have broad application prospects in horticulture.
Improvement of crop stress resistance
Drought and salinity stresses often result in crop yield reduction and even death. Studies found that hydrogen water can improve the resistance ability of rice, Arabidopsis and Medicago sativa plants to salinity, drought and other stresses [11,12]. The crops irrigation or sprinkler irrigation using hydrogen water, will improve the stress resistance of crops, to achieve the purpose of disaster prevention and reduction.
Improvement of crop resistance to disease and pests
The study have found that hydrogen can regulate the expression of receptor protein genes of many plant hormone, including some plant hormones associated with disease resistance, such as salicylic acid and jasmonic acid . Irrigation of crops by the use of hydrogen water will likely improve crop resistance to pest and disease leading to substitute for pesticides or reduce the use of pesticides thus it protect environment and improve food security.
Improvement of the quality of agricultural products
Hydrogen water irrigation of crops, such as vegetables and fruits, might make them much more delicious.
Reducing fertilizer use
H2 can regulate the effects of plant hormones such as auxin, cytokine. Hydrogen water treatment can promote the growth of the plant. It has been observed that hydrogen water has a significant effect on the growth of mung bean plants . Therefore, in the future, hydrogen water may be attractively used to irrigate crops, promoting plant growth, and reducing the use of chemical fertilizers.
Crop products preservation
The study has been shown that hydrogen water treatment could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of kiwifruit. Reduction of oxidative damage was considered be one of the main mechanisms by which the hydrogen water treatment delays senescence and inhibits respiration of kiwifruit . Owing to the antioxidant properties of hydrogen, hydrogen or hydrogen gas mixtures with other gases may contribute to the preservation of agricultural products. Due to the security of hydrogen, no poison, no residue, it has a strong advantage of food safety compared with other chemical treatment of fresh agricultural products.
“Hydrogen agricultural era” is desirable, but it still requires amounts of deep research and development, which firstly should be to study the mechanism of hydrogen effects on higher plants, to lay a solid theoretical foundation for the application of hydrogen agriculture; and secondly be to do a large scale field experiment, to figure out the precise methods of hydrogen or hydrogen water application in the agricultural production. We believe that, with these problems being solved gradually, “hydrogen agricultural era” will step to us.
Competing interestWe are here to formly state that all the authors have no competing interest on this article.
Authors’ contributionJZ participated in conception, designing and writing the article. ZY and XS contributed to the critical review and revision of the manuscript. All authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript.
[(from second left to right) Tyler LeBaron, Founder of Molecular Hydrogen Foundation (MHF) and Director of International Hydrogen Molecule Association; Jang Moon-chang, Chairman of International Hydrogen Molecule Association; and Lee Kyu-jae, President of The Korean Water Society and professor at Yonsei University.]
“A study was performed to compare the effects of drinking tap water, spring water and hydrogen water. The consumption of tap water after three hours increased oxygen free radicals unstably, while the consumption of hydrogen water reduced oxygen free radicals in only five minutes.”
Link to full article at The Huffington Post click here
This study demonstrates one of H2's unusual benefits-the ability to reduce the production of excess mucus in the airways resulting from cigarette smoking. If you can't kick the habit, then at least drink hydrogen-rich water.
Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS) is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study authors investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.
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